caesar ,de bello gallico

McDevitte and W.S. I.--. Caesar, inasmuch as he kept in remembrance that Lucius Cassius, the consul, had been slain, and his army routed and made to pass under the yoke by the Helvetii, did not think that [their request] ought to be granted: nor was he of opinion that men of hostile disposition, Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire stesso, lo stesso, proprio lo stesso, anche, go, walk; march, advance; pass; flow; pass; ride; sail, gehen, zu Fuß, march, voraus; pass; flow; pass; reiten, segeln, aller, marcher ; marche, avance ; passage ; écoulement ; passage ; tour ; voile, andare, camminare, marciare, anticipo; pass; flusso; pass; giro; vela, ir, caminar; marzo, avance; paso; flujo; paso; paseo; vela, custom, principle; decree; intention; arrangement; institution; habit, plan, Sitte, Prinzip; Dekret; Absicht; Anordnung; Einrichtung; Gewohnheit, planen, personnalisé, le principe; décret; intention; arrangement; institution; l'habitude, le plan, personalizzati, principio; decreto; intenzione; accordo; istituzione; abitudine, piano, principio de la costumbre,; decreto; intención; acuerdo; institución, el hábito, el plan de, set up, establish, found, make, institute; build; prepare; decide, eingerichtet, zu schaffen, fand machen, Institut; bauen, vorzubereiten; entscheiden, l'installation, établissent, trouvé, font, instituent ; construction ; préparer ; décider, istituire, stabilire, trovato, fare, istituto, costruire, preparare, decidere, la disposición, establece, encontrado, hace, instituye; estructura; prepararse; decidir, law; motion, bill, statute; principle; condition, Recht, Bewegung, bill, Satzung, Grundsatz, Bedingung, la loi, le mouvement, le projet de loi, la loi, le principe; condition, legge, movimento, disegno di legge, dello statuto; principio; condizione, la ley; movimiento, proyecto de ley, estatuto; principio, condición, postpone/delay/differ; put off, keep waiting; give respite to; differ, disagree, verschieben / Verzögerung / unterscheiden; ablegen, legen Sie nicht auf, Ruhe zu geben, unterscheiden, nicht einverstanden, remettre/retard à plus tard/diffèrent ; mettre au loin, attente de subsistance ; donner le sursis à ; différer, être en désaccord, rinviare / ritardo / divergenti; rimandare, continuo ad aspettare; dà tregua divergenti;, non sono d'accordo, posponer/retardo/diferencian; suspender, el esperar de la subsistencia; dar el plazo a; diferenciar, discrepar. All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in our Gauls, the third. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. His rebus adducti et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti constituerunt ea quae ad. Gaul, angeschlossen von / mit der Helvetier, ein Volk von Cen. The De Bello Gallico of Julius Caesar has been a staple of second-year Latin programmes for many centuries. Chapter 1. sum, esse, fui, futurus be; exist sein, existieren être ; exister essere, esistere ser; existir. Gallia. C. IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO GALLICO LIBER PRIMVS. You can also email, if you like: lee@nodictionaries.com, Save this passage to your account c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Click any word in the text to seeall the words it could come from.Click and drag to adjust vocab: © 2008-2019 NoDictionaries.com. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.23; Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB; Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] Home Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source About Help. Conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus, rise; arise/emerge, crop up; get up; begin; originate from, steigen, entstehen / entstehen, auftauchen; aufstehen; beginnen, stammen aus, élévation ; surgir/émerger, survenir ; se lever ; commencer ; provenir de, aumento; sorgere / emergono, affiorano, alzarsi; cominciare; provengono da, subida; presentarse/emerger, surgir; levantarse; comenzar; originar de, , infera -um, inferior -or -us, infumus -a -um, below, beneath, underneath; of hell; vile; lower, further down; lowest, last, unten, unten, unter, der Hölle, vile; niedriger, weiter unten, der niedrigste, letzte, au-dessous de, dessous, dessous ; de l'enfer ; vil ; abaisser, promouvoir vers le bas ; le plus bas, pour la dernière fois, sotto, sotto, sotto, di inferno, vile, basso, più in basso, più basso, ultimo, debajo, debajo, debajo; del infierno; vil; bajar, fomentar; lo más bajo posible, por último, observe, watch, look at, see; test; consider. bezeichnet. Gallia, of/connected con el Helvetii, gente del CEN. The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. Caesar Book I Running Core Vocabulary (5 or more times) The following seven pages includes all 335 words in the Book 1 of Julius Caesar’s De Bello Gallico that occur five or more times arranged in a running vocabulary list. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Caesar - De Bello Gallico 1.6. Kluft; trennen, zerfallen, teilen, verteilen zu unterscheiden; clivage ; séparé, casser vers le haut ; la part, distribuent ; distinguer, dividere, separare, suddividere, condividere, distribuire; distinguere, divisoria; separado, romperse para arriba; la parte, distribuye; distinguir, in, on, at; in accordance with/regard to/the case of; within, dans, sur, à, conformément à l'/ ce qui concerne les / le cas d'; dans, in, su, su, in conformità con / per quanto riguarda / il caso di; all'interno, en, sobre, en; de conformidad con / respecto a / el caso de, dentro de, into; about, in the mist of; according to, after; for; to, among, in, etwa in dem Nebel, der, nach, nachdem, denn, um unter, dans, environ, dans la brume de: selon, après, car, pour, entre, in, circa, nella nebbia di; secondo, dopo, per, per, tra, en, aproximadamente, en la bruma de, según, después, porque, para, entre, part, region; share; direction; portion, piece; party, faction, side, Teil, der Region; Aktien; Richtung; Teil, Stück, Partei, Fraktion, Seite, pièce, région ; part ; direction ; partie, morceau ; partie, faction, côté, parte, regione, quota, direzione, parte, pezzo, partito, fazione, lato, pieza, región; parte; dirección; porción, pedazo; partido, facción, lado, relative pronoun - gen. covered by Books 1–8 of The Landmark Julius Caesar, the civil war of 49 This plus an English book about the … The completed draft of Caesar’s De Bello Gallico Book 1 is being completely revised and reformatted to produce a 2017 edition of Caesar’s Helvetian Campaign. Created by. Seine, Fluss in N Cen. Belgae ab extremis, vergit ad septentriones. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. ; comment; de quelle manière, par quelle / ce qui signifie, selon laquelle, à n'importe quel prix, come?, così come, in che modo, con quale / quali mezzi, con cui, a qualunque prezzo, ¿cómo?, ¿cómo así, en qué forma; por lo que / lo que significa, según el cual, a cualquier precio, which in its own language [are called] the Celts, in our [language] the Gauls, the Celts inhabit the 3rd, which (is) the language of (Celts) themselves, himself/herself/itself; the very/real/actual one; in person; themselves, himself / herself / itself, die sehr / real / Ist ein; in Person selbst, lui-même se /, le très / real / une réelle; en personne; eux-mêmes, se stesso / se stessa; il molto / vero / reale uno; in persona; se stessi, sí / sí / sí mismo, el mismo / real / real de uno, en persona, sí, la langue, la parole, la langue, dialecte, Gallic, of Gaul/the Gauls; class of gladiator w/Gallic armor, Gallischen, der Gaul / die Gallier; Klasse von Gladiator w / gallischen Rüstung, Gaulois, de la Gaule / les Gaulois; classe de w Gladiator / armures gauloises, Gallico, della Gallia / i Galli; classe di gladiatori w / armatura gallico, Galo, de la Galia / los galos; clase de gladiador w / armadura galos, call; address; dun; solicit; appeal; bring to court; accuse; name, nennen, Anschrift, dun; erbitten; Rechtsmittel vor Gericht zu bringen; beschuldigen; Name, appel ; adresse ; créancier ; solliciter ; appel ; apporter à la cour ; accuser ; nom, chiamata; indirizzo; Dun, sollecitare; appello; portare al tribunale; accusare; nome, llamada; dirección; dun; solicitar; súplica; traer a la corte; acusar; nombre, drive to, move up, bring along, force towards; put ashore at, land, Antrieb, nach oben, mitbringen, Kraft nach; an Land auf, Land gebracht, conduire à, se relever, apporter le long, force vers ; mettre à terre à, terre, auto per spostarsi, su, portare con sé, la forza verso; sbarco a, terra, conducir a, levantarse, traer adelante, fuerza hacia; poner en tierra en, tierra. Happy reading. De Bello Gallico Libri Septem. Caesar: De Bello Gallico – Kapitel 54 – Übersetzung HINWEIS : Alle Übersetzungen, die auf Lateinheft.de veröffentlicht wurden dürfen nicht als die eigenen ausgeben werden. ¿limpiar/borrón de transferencia encendido? [ 1] 1 Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Belgae ab extremis Galliae, vergit ad septentriones. Caesar’s Helvetian Campaign / Gallic War 1. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Other articles where The Gallic Wars is discussed: Celtic religion: The Celtic gods: … is the passage in Caesar’s Commentarii de bello Gallico (52–51 bc; The Gallic War) in which he names five of them together with their functions. sagen, zu erklären, Staat, behaupten, erklären, positiv; behaupten, geltend machen; dire, déclarer, énoncer ; alléguer, déclarer franchement ; affirmer ; parler en faveur, dire, dichiarare, di stato; sostengono, dichiarare in modo positivo; affermare; eccepire, decir, declarar, indicar; alegar, declarar positivamente; afirmar; abogar por, discours, parlant, en disant; mot; commande, discorso, parlando, dicendo; parola; comando, words/utterance/remark; one's word/promise; saying/maxim; bon mot, witticism, Wörter / Äußerung / Bemerkung; ein Wort / Versprechen, Rede-Maxime, bon mot, Witz, Mots / expression / remarque; sa parole / promesse, disant / maxime; bon mot, plaisanterie, parole / parola / frase, la parola data / promessa, dicendo / massima; bon mot, battuta di spirito, palabras / expresión / observación; promesa de una palabra /; diciendo / máxima; bon mot, chiste, Eorum una, pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum, take hold, seize; grasp; take bribe; arrest/capture; put on; occupy; captivate, fassen, zu beschlagnahmen, zu erfassen, nehmen Sie bestechen; Verhaftung / capture; anziehen; zu besetzen, fesseln, la prise de prise, saisissent ; prise ; paiement illicite de prise ; arrestation/capture ; mettre dessus ; occuper ; captiver, afferrare, cogliere, afferrare, prendere tangenti, arresti / capture; mettere via; occupare; Captivate, el asimiento de la toma, agarra; asimiento; soborno de la toma; detención/captura; poner; ocupar; cautivar, secure, maintain, sustain; fasten/hold in position; retain, keep safe, preserve, zu sichern, zu erhalten, zu unterhalten; befestigen / in dieser Position halten, behalten, zu sichern, zu bewahren, fixer, maintenir, soutenir ; attacher/prise en position ; maintenir, garder le coffre-fort, conserve, sicuro, mantenere, sostenere, fissare / tenere in posizione; conservare, tenere al sicuro, di preservare, asegurar, mantener, sostener; sujetar/asimiento en la posición; conservar, guardar la caja fuerte, coto, touch, touch/border on; reach, arrive at, achieve; mention briefly; belong to, touch, touch / Grenze; zu erreichen, kommen zu erreichen; kurz erwähnen, gehören zu, contact, contact/frontière dessus ; la portée, arrivent à, réalisent ; mention brièvement ; appartenir à, touch, touch / frontiera; arrivare, arrivare, raggiungere, un breve cenno, appartengono a, tacto, tacto/frontera encendido; el alcance, llega, alcanza; mención breve; pertenecer a. 2 Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. qua de causa: ‘For this reason’ (Kelsey); ‘and for this reason’: referring back to proximi, etc., and further explained by quod…contendunt ( AG 404c) quoque: i.e. Match. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. is partes, -a -um, primus -a -um, singuli -ae -a, semel, alone, a single/sole; some, some one; only; one set of, Allein eine einzelne /-Sohle, einige, manche ein, nur, eine Reihe von, seulement, un simple/semelle ; certains, quelqu'un ; seulement ; un ensemble de, solo, una singola / unica, alcuni, qualcuno, solo, una serie di, solamente, un solo/una planta del pie; algunos, alguien; solamente; un sistema de, leben, wohnen / wohnen, bewohnen; Aufenthalt, de phase, l'angle de saturation/résident ; habiter ; séjour, vivere, abitare / risiedono; abitano; soggiorno, viva, la detención/reside; habitar; estancia, les Belges, de la tribu dans le Nord de la Gaule, los belgas, la tribu en el norte de la Galia, anderen, eine andere, verschiedene, verändert, how? Der Name Commentarii ist indirekt aus mehreren antiken Berichten belegt. Gaul Gaule Gallia Galia. Table of Contents. Caesar De Bello Gallico 1 3. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is available for download. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain.And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. Flashcards. zu beobachten, zu sehen, schauen, sehen, testen zu prüfen; observer, observer, regarder, voir ; essai ; considérer, osservare, guardare, guardare, vedere, prova; considerare, observar, mirar, mirar, ver; prueba; considerar, daybreak/dawn/sunrise; east, sunrise quarter of the sky; the East/Orient, Tagesanbruch / Morgenröte / Sonnenaufgang, Osten, Sonnenaufgang Viertel des Himmels, der Osten / Orient, aube / crépuscule / aube, à l'est trimestre lever du soleil, du ciel; l'Orient / Orient, alba / aurora / Alba; est, quarto alba del cielo; est / Oriente, alba / amanecer / salida del sol; trimestre este, la salida del sol del cielo, el Oriente / Oriente, rising; eastern; beginning, in its early stage, Aufstehen; östlichen; Anfang, in der Anfangsphase, in aumento; orientale, all'inizio, nella fase iniziale, en aumento; oriental; principio, en su fase inicial, Aquitania, one of the divisions of Gaul/France, Aquitanien, einem der Geschäftsbereiche von Gallien / Frankreich, Aquitaine, l'une des divisions de la Gaule / France, Aquitania, una delle divisioni della Gallia / Francia, Aquitania, una de las divisiones de la Galia / Francia, Berge, riesige Felsen, hoch aufragenden Heap, montagna, enorme roccia; mucchio torreggianti, Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes, Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et, Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam, Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem, Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani, Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae, fall, fall down; perish, die, be slain; be ruined/done for, decline, end, fallen, fallen, umkommen, sterben, werden getötet, werden zerstört / verloren, Verfall, Ende, la chute, tombent vers le bas ; périr, mourir, soit massacré ; être ruiné/fait pour, déclin, extrémité, cadere, cadere, perire, morire, essere ucciso; essere rovinato / finito, declino, fine, la caída, baja abajo; fallecer, morir, se mate; arruinarse/se hace para, declinación, extremo, ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum, only, single; lonely; alone, having no companion/friend/protector; unique, nur, einzeln, einsam, allein, da sie keine Begleiter / Freund / Beschützer; einzigartige, seulement, simple ; seul ; seulement, n'ayant aucun compagnon/ami/protecteur ; unique, solo, unico, solitario, da solo, non avendo alcun compagno / amico / protettore; unico, solamente, solo; solo; solamente, no teniendo ningún compañero/amigo/protector; único, in basso, a terra, pavimento; suolo, il territorio, parte inferior, tierra, piso; suelo, tierra, ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis, ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et, Thanks very much. Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, Gallia, Galliae F Gaul. der Sequaner, Stamm E. Gaul - in Caesars "Gallischen Krieg" des Séquanes, tribu E. Gaule - la guerre de César «gaulois», dei Sequani, tribù in Gallia E. - a Cesare "gallico War", de la secuanos, tribu en la Galia E. - en "La guerra de César galo", , forte, fortior -or -us, fortissimus -a -um, strong, powerful, mighty, vigorous, firm, steadfast, courageous, brave, bold, stark, mächtig, mächtig, kräftig, fest, standhaft, mutig, tapfer, kühn, fort, puissant, puissant, énergique, ferme, inébranlable, courageux, brave, audacieux, forte, potente, possente, vigoroso, solido, tenace, coraggioso, coraggioso, audace, fuerte, potente, fuerte, vigoroso, firme, constante, valiente, valiente, audaz, parce que, dans la mesure où, dans la mesure où, propterea+quod= "because of the fact that", "because", habitation; cultivation; civilization, refinement; polish, elegance, Wohnung; Anbau, Kultur, Verfeinerung, polnisch, Eleganz, habitation; culture, la civilisation, de raffinement, le polonais, l'élégance, abitazione, di coltivazione; civiltà, la raffinatezza, smalti, eleganza, vivienda; de cultivo; la civilización, el refinamiento, lacas, elegancia, live in, inhabit; till, cultivate, promote growth; foster, maintain, leben, wohnen, bis zu pflegen, zu fördern Wachstum, fördern, erhalten, vivre dedans, habiter ; jusqu'à ce que, cultiver, favoriser la croissance ; stimuler, maintenir, vivere, abitare, finché, coltivare, promuovere la crescita, promuovere, mantenere, vivir adentro, habitar; hasta que, cultivar, promover el crecimiento; fomentar, mantener, and, as well/soon as; together with; and moreover/even; and too/also/now; yet, und, wie gut / schnell wie, zusammen mit, und darüber hinaus / selbst und zu / auch / jetzt doch, et, ainsi / dès que, avec, et d'ailleurs / même, et aussi / également / maintenant, et pourtant, e, oltre / presto, insieme, e per di più / anche, e troppo / anche / ora; ancora, y, además de / antes, junto con, y por otra parte / aun, y también / también / ahora, sin embargo, but, but on the other hand; on the contrary; while, whereas; but yet; at least, aber, aber auf der anderen Seite, im Gegenteil, während, während, aber doch wenigstens, mais, mais d'une part ; au contraire ; tandis que, tandis que ; mais encore ; au moins, ma, ma d'altra parte, al contrario, mentre, mentre, ma ancora, almeno, pero, pero por una parte; en el contrario; mientras que, mientras que; pero todavía; por lo menos, human nature/character/feeling; kindness/courtesy; culture/civilization, die menschliche Natur / character / Gefühl, Freundlichkeit / Höflichkeit, Kultur / Kultur, la nature humaine / caractère / sentiment; gentillesse / politesse; culture / civilisation, la natura umana / personaggio / sensazione; gentilezza / cortesia; cultura / civiltà, la naturaleza humana y el carácter / sentimiento, la bondad y la cortesía, la cultura / civilización, Genitive singular - Of the province. De Bello Gallico: Complete Edition (Latin Edition) is just $14.90 and it contains all SEVEN of Caesar's books and the EIGHTH book by Hirtius. Book 1. De Bello Gallico, II book. Gaul, of/connected avec le Helvetii, un peuple du CEN. eat/consume/devour; eat away; destroy; spend money on food, Essen / verbrauchen / verschlingen, fressen, zu vernichten; Geld für Lebensmittel, manger / consommation / dévorer; ronger; détruire; dépenser de l'argent sur les denrées alimentaires, mangiare / consumare / divorare, mangiare fuori, distruggere; spendere soldi per cibo, comer / consumir / devorar, comer fuera, destruye; gastar dinero en comida, each, every, every one; all; all/the whole of, jeder, jede, jeder, alle, alle / die gesamte, chacun, chaque, chacun ; tous ; tous/totalité de, ciascuno, tutti, tutti, tutti, tutti / tutto, cada uno, cada, todos; todos; todos/el conjunto de, all things; everything; a/the whole, entity, unit, alles, alles, ein / das Ganze Einheit, Einheit, toutes les choses ; tout ; a/the entier, entité, unité, tutte le cose, tutto, un / il tutto, ente, unità, todas las cosas; todo; a/the entero, entidad, unidad, divide; separate, break up; share, distribute; distinguish. 3. ; anteced. Als Commentarii de bello Gallico (lateinischer Bericht über den Gallischen Krieg) oder De bello Gallico (deutsch Vom Gallischen Kriege, Über den Gallischen Krieg) wird ein Bericht des römischen Feldherrn Gaius Iulius Caesar über den Gallischen Krieg (58 bis 51/50 v. Es ist ebenfalls nicht gestattet die Übersetzungen an anderer Stelle zu veröffentlichen. Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul (mainly present-day France and Belgium). When Caesar got proconsul of Gallia and Illyria in 58 B.C, the conquest of land in Gaul was an urgent need, both to improve his political standing and to calm his creditors in Rome. 1. differ among themselves in language, institutions, [and] laws. The Garonne River [divides] the Gauls from the Aquitanians, river, stream; any flowing fluid; flood; onrush, Fluss, Bach, jede strömenden Fluids; Hochwasser; Ansturm, fleuve, jet ; tout fluide débordant ; inondation ; ruée, fiume, torrente, qualsiasi fluido, inondazioni; impeto, río, corriente; cualquie líquido que fluye; inundación; avalancha. Caesar was a highly successful field leader and he had to rely on written reports, first to fulfill his responsibility of reporting to the Roman Senate, and also to keep his own name prominent with the Roman citizens. Test. Debra L. Nousek, University of Western Ontario, Martin Jehne, Technische Universität Dresden, Judy E. Gaughan, Colorado State University, Pueblo, Erich S. Gruen, University of California, Berkeley, Olivier Büchsenschütz, CNRS, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Arthur M. Eckstein, University of Maryland, P  Late Republican Provincial Administration   63, Duncan B. Campbell, University of Glasgow, Richard J. Yes, he is saying "effeminate the mind." De Bello Alexandrino (also Bellum Alexandrinum; On the Alexandrine War) is a Latin work continuing Julius Caesar's commentaries, De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili. While militarily just as strong as the Romans, the Gallic tribes' internal divisions helped ease victory for Caesar, and Vercingetorix New revisions of the Helvetian Campaign will appear throughout the Fall of 2017. Commentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. De Bello Gallico Book I Chapters 1-7. 1 Grammatical Appendix from Caesar: Selections fr om his Commentarii De Bello Gallico Introduction Th is Appendix is a revision of the one that bears the same title in Arthur Tappan Walker’s Caesar’s Gallic War with Introduction, Notes, Vocabulary, and Grammatical Appendix (Chicago and New York: Scott Foresman and Company, 1907), pp. Gaule, dans "César Guerre des Gaules", Senna, fiume in N CEN. C. Julius Caesar, De bello Gallico T. Rice Holmes, Ed. Chr.) All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. J. Do you think this is in contrast to "cultu atque humanitat... minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos, mind; intellect; soul; feelings; heart; spirit, courage, character, pride; air, Geist, Verstand, Seele, Gefühle, Herz, Geist, Mut, Charakter, Stolz, Luft, esprit, l'intellect; âme, les sentiments, le coeur, l'esprit, le courage, le caractère, la fierté, de l'air, mente, intelletto, anima, sentimenti, cuore, spirito, coraggio, carattere, orgoglio; aria, mente, el intelecto, alma, sentimientos, corazón, espíritu, coraje, carácter, el orgullo: el aire, reach; extend; relate to; concerns, pertain to, zu erreichen; auszuweiten; beziehen; betrifft, beziehen sich auf, atteindre, d'étendre, se rapportent; préoccupations, se rapportent à, raggiungere; estendere, riferiscono; preoccupazioni, riguardano, alcance; se extienden; se refieren a, preocupaciones, pertenecen a, bring in, convey; import; bring about, cause, bringen, zu vermitteln; import bringen, etwa, Ursache, apporter dedans, transporter ; importation ; provoquer, cause, portare, trasportare, importare, produrre, causare, traer adentro, transportar; importación; causar, causa, nearest/closest/next; most recent, immediately preceding, last; most/very like, nächstgelegenen / das nächste / next; jüngsten, unmittelbar vor, letzte, die meisten / sehr ähnlich, le plus proche le plus proche / / suivante; les plus récentes, qui précède immédiatement, le dernier, la plupart ou très similaires, più vicina / vicino / dopo; più recenti, immediatamente precedente, ultimo, la maggior parte / di molto simile, más cercano más cercano / / siguiente; más reciente, inmediatamente antes, el pasado, la mayoría / muy parecido, Eigene / Volle, echte, reale, wirkliche, echte, propres / plein; authentique, réelle, effective, réelle, proprio / pieno; genuino, vero, reale, vero, propia / de cuerpo, genuina, real, real, verdadera, Schwester, die eigene Schwester, Vollschwester, über, über, hinter, auf der anderen Seite, en travers, sur, au-delà; de l'autre côté, attraverso, oltre, al di là, dall'altra parte, who/whatever, no matter who/what, in any time/way, however small, wer / was auch immer, egal wer / was in jeder Zeit / Art und Weise, wie klein, qui/quoi que, n'importe qui/ce qui, dans n'importe quand/manière, de quelque manière que petite, Chi / qualunque cosa, non importa chi / che cosa, in ogni tempo / modo, per quanto piccolo, quién/lo que, cualquiera/qué, en en caulquier momento/manera, al menos pequeña, unbroken/continuously/without pause, uninterruptedly; repeatedly/successively, ungebrochene / kontinuierlich / ohne Pause, ununterbrochen, immer wieder / nacheinander, ininterrompue / continu / sans pause, sans interruption; à plusieurs reprises / successivement, ininterrotta / continuamente / senza pausa, senza soluzione di continuità; ripetutamente / successione, continua / continua / sin pausa, de forma ininterrumpida; repetidamente / sucesivamente, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter, war, warfare; battle, combat, fight; war; military force, arms, Krieg, Krieg, Kampf, Kampf, Kampf, Krieg, Militär-, Waffen -, la guerre, la guerre; bataille, combat, combat, guerre, la force militaire, les armes, guerra, guerra; battaglia, combattimento, lotta, guerra, la forza militare, le armi, guerra, guerra; batalla, combate, lucha, guerra, la fuerza militar, las armas, , bella -um, bellior -or -us, bellissimus -a -um, pretty, handsome, charming, pleasant, agreeable, polite; nice, fine, excellent, hübsch, hübsch, charmant, freundlich, angenehm, höflich, nett, schön, gute, assez, beau, charme, plaisant, agréable, poli ; gentil, fin, excellent, bello, bello, attraente, gradevole, piacevole, educato, bello, fine, eccellente, bastante, hermoso, el encantar, agradable, conforme, cortés; agradable, fino, excelente, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum, bear, carry, wear; carry on; manage, govern, tragen, tragen, tragen, treiben; verwalten, zu steuern, l'ours, portent, portent ; continuer ; contrôler, régir, orso, trasportare, usura; proseguire, gestire, governare, el oso, lleva, usa; continuar; manejar, gobernar, down/away from, from, off; about, of, concerning; according to; with regard to, down / away from, aus, aus, etwa, über, betreffend, nach; im Hinblick auf die, bas / loin de, à partir de, hors, environ, de, concernant, selon, en ce qui concerne, giù / lontano da, da, off; circa, di, in merito, secondo, per quanto riguarda la, abajo / lejos de, desde, fuera, alrededor, de, relativa, de acuerdo a, con respecto a, cause/reason/motive; origin, source, derivation; responsibility/blame; symptom, Ursache / Grund / Motiv, Ursprung, Herkunft, Abstammung, die Verantwortung / Schuld, Symptom, cause / motif / mobile, l'origine, la source, la dérivation, la responsabilité et le blâme; symptôme, causa / ragione / motivazione; origine, provenienza, derivazione; responsabilità / colpa; sintomo, causa / razón / motivo; origen, procedencia, derivación, la responsabilidad / culpa; síntoma, for sake/purpose of, on account/behalf of, with a view to, willen / Zweck, auf Konto / Namen, mit Blick auf die, pour l'amour / fins, le compte / nom, en vue de, per l'amor / scopo di, a causa / per conto di, al fine di, por el amor / propósito de, a cuenta / nombre de, con el fin de, of/connected with the Helvetii, a people of Cen. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. zu gehen, besuchen, reisen, übergeben; Rückgriff auf, geh hin und her, kommen und gehen zu kommunizieren; Aller à la visiter, Voyage, passer; recours à; aller et venir, d'aller et venir, de communiquer, andare a, visitare, viaggiare, passare, ricorrere ad andare, avanti e indietro, vanno e vengono; comunicare, ir, visitar, viajar, pasar; recurrir a; van y vienen, van y vienen, comunicar, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque, go, walk; march, advance; pass; flow; pass; ride; be in the middle, gehen, zu Fuß, march, voraus; pass; flow; pass; reiten, werden in der Mitte, aller, marcher ; marche, avance ; passage ; écoulement ; passage ; tour ; être au milieu, andare, camminare, marciare, anticipo; pass; flusso; pass; giro, essere al centro, ir, caminar; marzo, avance; paso; flujo; paso; paseo; estar en el centro, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad, weaken, enervate, make effeminate, emasculate, unman, schwächen, entkräften, zu weibisch, entmannen, unman, s'affaiblir, affaiblir, rendre efféminé, émasculer, toucher, indebolire, snervare, fare effeminato, effeminato, unman, debilitarse, enervate, hacer afeminado, emascular, acobardar. Gaius Julius CAESAR (100 - 44 BCE) In this book the famous Gaius Julius Caesar himself describes the seven years of his war in Gaul. This work, however, is far too long to be covered entirely in one course, and it has always been the task of the professor to determine which books and chapters of the Gallic Wars were to be surveyed. (via login/signup). A. Talbert, University of North Carolina, Lukas De Blois, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Jonathan P. Roth, San José State University, BB  The Chronology of Caesar’s Campaigns   131, Christopher B. Krebs, Stanford University, Luca Grillo, University of North Carolina at, KK  The Cultural Legacy of Caesar’s Commentaries   255, LL  The Origins of the Corpus of Caesar’s Works   260, Jan-Felix Gaertner, University of Cologne, Cynthia Damon, University of Pennsylvania, TT  From Defeat at Dyrrachium to Victory at, Gregory S. Bucher, University of Maryland, A Note from the Editors about the Web Essays, The Web essays published here are an integral part of, The corpus of Caesar’s works comprises eight books of the, , and three individual war narratives by unknown authors who were, ), the second round of the civil wars in 46 by Book 13, ), and the last round of the civil wars in 45 by Book 14 (, We have taken advantage of the opportunities offered by the Internet which, unlike. pl. ; how so; in what way; by what/which means; whereby; at whatever price, wie?, so wie, in welcher Weise, mit welchen / welche, Mittel, mit denen, um jeden Preis, comment? 424–528. probably officers in Caesar’s army and thus participated in the events and provide a different perspective on Caesar the general and leader. All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit, the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts, in ours Gauls… In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Gallien-in "Caesar's Gallischen Krieg" Seine, fleuve N Cen. Seine, river in N Cen. and also, besides/furthermore, in addition/as well; even, actually; yes/indeed, und auch neben / außerdem, zusätzlich / als auch, sogar, eigentlich, ja / ja, et aussi, en plus / en outre, dans ajout / et, même, en fait, oui / effet, e anche, oltre a / inoltre, in aggiunta / e, anche, di fatto, sì / davvero, y también, además de / por otra parte, además de /, así, incluso, en realidad, sí / de hecho, Sequani, tribe in E. Gaul- in Caesar's"Gallic War". Caesar De Bello Gallico 1 1. Bohn. Gaul- in Caesar's"Gallic War". 5 Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna fl ūmen, ā Belgīs Matrona et schoolhardstudyhard. The Latin text given here generally conforms with the Oxford Classical Text of 1900 by Renatus DuPontet, except for the following:. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which remains the most important historical source regarding the conflict. Add note. Although Caesar mentions the Belgae, his real topic are the Helvetians, whom he will soon introduce as the second bravest of the Gauls and whom he has just conquered in battle. ; to strive, dispute, ... oder, oder vielmehr / else: entweder ... oder, sein ein "s, ihr, ihr, ihre, ihr, ihren, la sua / un 's, lei, lei, la sua, la loro, la loro, el suyo/su, ella, la suya, su; su, el suyo, boundary, end, limit, goal; country, territory, land, Grenze, Ende, Grenze, Ziel, Land, Gebiet, Land, limite, fin, limite, le but; pays, territoires, terres, confine, fine, limite, meta; paese, territorio, terra, límite, fin, límite, objetivo; países, territorios, tierras, verhindern, zurückhalten; verbieten, verhindern, obstaculizar, refrenar; prohibir, prevenir, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum, together, together with; at the same time; along with, zusammen, zusammen mit, zur gleichen Zeit, zusammen mit, ensemble, ainsi que ; en même temps ; avec, insieme, insieme, nello stesso tempo, insieme a, junto, junto con; al mismo tiempo; junto con, get hold of; maintain; obtain; hold fast, occupy; prevail. The Marne [River] and the Seine [River] divide[s] them from the Belgians. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento Hī omnēs linguā, īnstitūtīs, (4) lēgibus inter sē diff erunt. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Caesar, beccause he was remembering that Lucius Cassius the consul has been killed and the army of him has been defeated by the Helvetii and was sent under the yoke, he was not thinking it must be allowed; not was he thinking that men with hostile spirits would refrain from injury and damage with the opportunity of making the journey through the province having been given. Gaulois, di / connessi con gli Elvezi, popolo del CEN. Spell. To emphasize the coherence of the entire corpus, we have numbered the books in sequence, with the Gallic war of 58–50 B.C.E. STUDY. Mercury was the most honoured of all the gods and many images of him were to be found. ie Roman territory. Latin. Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: Write. 26Aug17) By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. ergattern; aufrechtzuerhalten; zu erhalten, festhalten, nehmen herrschen; mettre la main sur ; maintenir ; obtenir ; tenir, occuper ; régner, entrare in possesso di: mantenere, ottenere, veloce presa, occupano; prevalere, conseguir el asimiento de; mantener; obtener; sostenerse rápidamente, ocupar; prevalecer, say, declare, state; allege, declare positively; assert; plead. où, à quel endroit, à quelle fin; raison pour laquelle, par conséquent, dove, in quale luogo, per quale scopo, per quale motivo, dunque, donde, a qué lugar, con qué propósito, por lo que, por lo tanto, each, each one; every, everybody, everything; whatever, chacun, chacun ; chaque, tout le monde, tout ; quoi que, ciascuno, ognuno, ogni, tutti, tutto, e tutto ciò, cada uno, cada uno; cada, todos, todo; lo que, rest of/remaining/available/left; surviving; future/further; yet to be/owed, Rest / verbleibende / verfügbar / left; überlebenden; Zukunft / weitere, noch zu / geschuldet, repos of/remaining/available/left ; survie ; futur/plus loin ; pourtant à be/owed, resto della / rimanente / disponibile / sinistra; superstite; futuro / perfezionamento; ancora da / nei confronti, resto of/remaining/available/left; supervivencia; futuro/más lejos; con todo a be/owed, Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos, strength/power; courage/bravery; worth/manliness/virtue/character/excellence, Kraft / Macht, Mut / Tapferkeit; wert / Männlichkeit / Tugend / Charakter / Spitzenleistungen, force/puissance ; courage/courage ; en valeur/virilité/vertu/caractère/excellence, forza / potenza, coraggio / coraggio, vale la pena / virilità / virtù / personaggio / eccellenza, fuerza/energía; valor/valor; digno de/masculinidad/virtud/carácter/excelencia, Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute, gehen, bevor vorausgehen; übertreffen, übertreffen, aller avant, précéder ; surpasser, exceler, ir antes, preceder; sobrepasarse, sobresalir, For this reason the Helveti also surpass the remaining Gauls in virtue, almost; about, nearly; generally, in general; hardly ever, fast, ungefähr, beinahe, meist im Allgemeinen; kaum, presque ; au sujet de, presque ; généralement, en général ; à peine jamais, quasi, circa, quasi, in generale, in generale; quasi mai, casi; sobre, casi; generalmente, en general apenas nunca, wild beast/animal; wild/untamed horse/boar, Tier / Tier, wild / ungezähmten Pferd / Eber, bête/animal sauvages ; cheval sauvage/indompté/verrat, belva / animale; selvatico / cavallo selvaggio / cinghiale, bestia/animal salvajes; caballo/verraco salvajes/untamed, wild, savage; uncivilized; untamed; fierce, sauvage, sauvage ; incivilisé ; indompté ; féroce, selvaggio, selvaggio, incivile, selvaggio, feroce, salvaje, salvaje; incivilizado; untamed; feroz, daily, everyday; usual/habitual, normal/regular; ordinary/common/unremarkable, täglich, jeden Tag; üblichen / gewöhnliche, normale / regular; gewöhnlichen / common / unauffällig, quotidien, journalier ; habituel/habituel, normale/militaire de carrière ; ordinaire/commun/ordinaire, ogni giorno, ogni giorno, usuale / abituale, normale / regolare; ordinario / comune / irrilevante, diario, diario; generalmente/habitual, normal/asiduo; ordinario/común/poco destacable, battle/fight/bout/conflict/dispute; armed/hostile encounter; bout of strength, Kampf / Kampf / bout / Konflikte / Streit, bewaffnete / feindlich begegnen; bout der Stärke, bataille/combat/accès/conflit/conflit ; rencontre armée/hostile ; accès de force, battaglia / lotta / incontro / conflitto / controversia; armato / ostile incontro, attacco di forza, batalla/lucha/combate/conflicto/conflicto; encuentro armado/hostil; combate de la fuerza, with, together/jointly/along/simultaneous with, amid; supporting; attached, mit, zusammen / gemeinsam / zusammen / gleichzeitig mit, unter, Unterstützung und angrenzende, avec, ensemble / conjointement / long / simultanée avec, au milieu, le soutien, joint, con, insieme / insieme / insieme / contemporanea, in mezzo, di sostegno; allegato, con, junto / en forma conjunta / en / simultáneo con, en medio, de apoyo; adjunta, when, at the time/on each occasion/in the situation that; after; since/although, wenn zum Zeitpunkt / bei / in der Situation, dass, nach, da / obwohl, quand, au moment de / à chaque fois / dans la situation qui, après, puisque / bien, quando, al tempo / ogni volta / nella situazione in cui, dopo, dato che / se, cuando, en el momento / en cada ocasión / en la situación que, después, puesto que / aunque, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis, stretch, draw tight, make taut; draw/bend; tune; stretch out, strecken, ziehen dicht, straff machen, zeichne / bend; tune; ausstrecken, le bout droit, aspiration fortement, rendent tendu ; aspiration/courbure ; air ; étirer dehors, tratto, disegnare strette, rendono perfettamente teso; draw / collo; sintonia; tratto fuori, el estiramiento, drenaje firmemente, hace tenso; drenaje/curva; consonancia; estirar hacia fuera. The number in the right column indicates the … -In Gallia di Cesare "guerra gallica", Sena, el río en N Cen. » noun. hic, haec, hoc this; these dieser, diese, dieses dans cette direction, questa direzione, este, los cuales. Read all. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. What enemy, Commentary: Caesar’s Helvetian Campaign (2.7 mb pdf, 7 x 10 inch, beta ed. Od. 3 Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a … Gravity. [they] are called - 3rd p. plural passive present. Sequaner, Stamm E. Gaul - in Caesars "Gallischen Krieg" Séquanes, tribu E. Gaule - la guerre de César «gaulois», Sequani, tribù in Gallia E. - a Cesare "gallico War", Secuanos, tribu en la Galia E. - en "La guerra de César galo", finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen, Big/Little Dipper; north, north regions/wind; brooch w/7 stones, Big / Little Dipper, Norden, nördlich Regionen / Wind, Brosche w / 7 Steinen, Grand/petit Dipper ; régions du nord et du nord/vent ; pierres de la broche with7, Grande / piccolo Carro, del nord, le regioni nord-vento; spilla w / 7 pietre, Grande/poco cazo; regiones del norte, del norte/viento; piedras de la broche with7, , extera -um, exterior -or -us, extremus -a -um, outer/external; outward; on outside, far; of another country, foreign; strange, Außen / external; nach außen, auf der Außenseite, weit, von einem anderen Land, fremde, seltsame, externe/external ; à l'extérieur ; sur dehors, loin ; d'un autre pays, étranger ; étrange, esterno / esterni; passivo; al di fuori, lontano, di un altro paese straniero; strano, externo/external; hacia fuera; en afuera, lejos; de otro país, extranjero; extraño, vergit ad septentriones. By Julius Caesar. PLAY. To measure or try one's strength with, with weapons, by words, in action, etc. "of our province", propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae, , longa -um, longior -or -us, longissimus -a -um, long; tall; tedious, taking long time; boundless; far; of specific length/time, lang, wobei groß, langweilig, lange Zeit; grenzenlos; weit; bestimmter Länge / Zeit, longtemps ; grand ; pénible, mettant le longtemps ; illimité ; loin ; de la longueur/du temps spécifiques, lungo, alto, noioso, prendendo tempo; sconfinato, lontano; specifiche di lunghezza / tempo, de largo; alto; aburrido, tardando tiempo largo; ilimitado; lejos; de la longitud/del tiempo específicos, far, distant, a long way; by far; for a long while, far, weit entfernt, ein langer Weg, mit Abstand, für eine lange Zeit, weit, Jusqu'à présent, lointain, un long chemin; de loin, depuis longtemps, loin, lontano, lontano, una lunga strada, di gran lunga, per lungo tempo, lontano, ahora, lejos, muy lejos, de lejos, por un tiempo largo, la medida, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime, be away/absent/distant/missing; be free/removed from; be lacking; be distinct, werden entfernt / nicht vorhanden / entfernt / nicht vorhanden; frei / entnommen; fehlen; verschieden sein, être parti/absent/éloigné/manquant ; être libre/enlevé de ; manque ; être distinct, essere lontano / assente / distanza / mancanti; essere libero / rimosso da; mancare; essere distinto, ser ausente/ausente/distante/perdido; ser libre/quitado de; está careciendo; ser distinto, , parva -um, minor -or -us, minimus -a -um, small, little, cheap; unimportant; smallest, least, kleine, kleine, billige, unwichtig, kleinsten, am wenigsten, petit, peu, bon marché ; sans importance ; le plus petit, mineurs, piccolo, piccolo, poco costoso, poco importante, più piccolo, meno, pequeño, poco, barato; poco importante; el más pequeño, lo menos, too/very little, not enough/so good, insufficient; less; not at all, zu / sehr wenig, nicht genug / so gut, unzureichend; weniger, überhaupt nicht, trop/très peu, pas enough/so bon, insuffisant ; moins ; pas du tout, troppo / poco, non abbastanza / così buono, sufficiente, meno, non a tutti, también/muy poco, no enough/so bueno, escaso; menos; en absoluto, to, up to, towards; near, at; until, on, by; almost; according to; about w/NUM, auf, bis, Richtung, in der Nähe um, bis auf, durch, fast, nach, etwa w / NUM, à, jusqu'à, vers ; près de, à ; jusqu'à, dessus, près ; presque ; selon ; au sujet de w/NUM, a, fino a, verso, vicino, alle, finché, a, da, quasi, secondo, circa w / NUM, a, hasta, hacia; cerca, en; hasta, encendido, cerca; casi; según; sobre w/NUM, often, oft, oftimes, many times, frequently, souvent, souvent, oftimes, plusieurs fois, souvent, spesso, spesso, oftimes, molte volte, spesso, a menudo, a menudo, oftimes, muchas veces, con frecuencia, hedge; fence; anything planted/erected to form surrounding barrier, Hedge; Zaun nichts gepflanzt wurden errichtet, um Form umgebenden Barriere, de couverture; clôture; rien planté / érigé pour former barrière entourant, copertura; recinzione; nulla piantato / erette a forma di barriera che circonda, de cobertura; valla; nada plantado / erigido para que lo rodean son la barrera, go to, visit, travel; pass; resort to; go to and fro, come and go; communicate. Galia-en "Guerra de las Galias de César", of the Sequani, tribe in E. Gaul- in Caesar's"Gallic War". Learn. 2 • A Notebook for Caesar’s De Bello Gallico [1.1] Gallia est omnis dīvīsa in partēs trēs, quārum ūnam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquītānī, tertiam quī ipsōrum linguā Celtae, nostrā Gallī appellantur. as well as the Belgians (Towle & Jenks); ‘also,’ always follows the emphatic word, ‘because they (just as … Mercury was regarded as the inventor of… Gaul, likewise/besides/also/too; not only; even/actually, Ebenso / neben / auch / zu, nicht nur, auch / eigentlich, De même, / en plus / en outre / trop, non seulement, même / réalité, Allo stesso modo / oltre / anche / troppo, e non solo, anche / realtà, asimismo / además / también / demasiado, no sólo, incluso / realidad, where, to what place; to what purpose; for which reason, therefore, wo, in welchem Ort, zu welchem Zweck, denn die Vernunft, also.

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