### dosage calculation formula

You will learn, for example, that the maximum number of tablets or capsules for a single dosage is usually three. Therefore gr ½ = 30 mg. Formula Method Each method will allow an accurate calculation of the medication dosage. 6. Use the universal formula below and then divide your final answer by the patient's weight in kg to arrive at mcg/kg/minute. Therefore x = 1.5 tabs, or 1½ tabs. For consistency and to avoid chances of error when Q is not 1, always include Q even with tablet and capsule problems. ���&/; ��y�˰.��$�t������|�W�y�t�r�pڡl���,�Z��h� ���@�9�H�M·����2�T[��$/��%F�7w"�X��u������חo^e���A�,rUA*d�d&2&� No matter what initials you have after your name (RN, CNA, PA, and so on), you can bet you’ll see math on a daily basis if you’re going into (or are already in) a career in the medical field. 4. 5. The medication label shows that 75-150 mg/kg per day is the appropriate dosage range. It’s important to remember any time we do calculations we must have our measures in the same system and in the same sized units. DOSAGE CALCULATIONS Doctors can prescribe medications in amounts that are not convenient to administer. NOTE The second formula used to calculate dosages is the body surface area (BSA) method. Nursing Calculations & IV Therapy For Dummies Cheat Sheet. Anything exceeding that should be a red flag to you, even if the answer is obtained from the use of a formula. Dosage calculations based on body weight are calculated in two main stages. Difficulty. After reviewing this chapter, you should be able to: Quiz Flashcard. Patient Weight? DH × Q=x 2. Dimensional Analysis 2. Available: Tablets labeled 15 mg Memorize the formula, or verify the formula from a resource. Make sure to input your accurate weight! Step 6: Dosage Calculations; We also created a mind map to help you navigate through these steps easier, especially if you’re a visual person. Drug Dosage Calculation Practice Quiz. By Claire Boyd . Examples: mg, g, etc. CAUTION Box 1. 5. Place the information from the problem into the formula in the correct position, with all terms in the formula labeled correctly, including “x.”. This is a 3- hour course that will teach you how to calculate the correct dosage for medications. Think logically, and consider what a reasonable amount to administer would be. endobj Calculate your answer, using the formula. Solution: These weight-based calculation problems were designed to help you better understand how to apply basic conversions to advanced drug problems. NOTE Questions. Drug calculations appear to be impossibly difficult, unless you break them down into small steps. Learn dosage calculations with this free tutorial complete with explanations, examples, and practice questions. Dosage Calculation Using the Formula Method It is important to know the recognized abbreviations in clinical setting so you will not be lost when preparing medications for your patient. <>>> 1 0 obj %���� Dosage (drug) calculations nursing comprehensive quiz for students! WordPress theme by UFO themes. %PDF-1.5 Solve the problem. These are: 1. Now that you have everything in the same system and units of measure, use the formula presented to calculate the dosage to be administered. Now we will look at sample problems illustrating the use of the formula. It is primarily an individual decision. “Q” is labeled accordingly as tablet, capsule, milliliter, etc. Therefore x = 2 tabs. Critical Thinking When you are solving problems that involve solid forms of medication (tabs, caps), Q is always 1 and can be eliminated from the equation. Thinking first will allow you to detect errors and alert you to try again and question the results you obtained. The label on x is tablet. Example 4: Calculate medication dosages using the formula DH×Q=x When you are solving problems that involve solid forms of medication (tabs, caps), Q is always 1 and can be eliminated from the equation. Log In or Register to continue Calculate medication dosages using the formula DH×Q=x 3. Available: 10,000 units in 2 mL If you need to calculate the dose of a given medication, use the following formula: dose = weight * dosage. REVIEW OF DOSAGE CALCULATION METHODS There are three basic methods for calculating medication dosages. Remember that it is usual to convert what is desired to what is available. 4 0 obj Look up information on diseases, tests, and procedures; then consult the database with 5,000+ drugs or refer to 65,000+ dictionary terms. Calculate your answer, using the formula 3 0 obj For example: You are asked to give a patient weighing 50 kg a 1 mg/kg IV injection. Some liquid medications may also express the quantity in amounts less than a milliliter, such as 2 mg per 0.5 mL. Now that we have reviewed the terms in the formula, let’s review the steps for using the formula (Box 15-1) before beginning to calculate dosages using the formula. 6.Preferred Units for Liquid Dosage? To view other topics, please sign in or purchase a subscription. Calculate the number of tablets or capsules to administer Use formulas to validate the dosage you think is reasonable, not the reverse. 8��O�|�s�. These problems are a type of pediatric dosage calculations. Drug Dosage Calculation. Calculate the volume to administer for medications in solution Find out what's in your I.V. A memorable formula. kg lb. that contains the available dosage. Convert what is ordered to the same units or system of measure as what is available by using one of the methods presented in the chapter on converting. Calculate the volume to administer for medications in solution. RULE <> Use critical thinking skills such as considering what the answer should be, reasoning, problem solving, and finding rational justification for your answer. Convert what is ordered to the same units or system of measure as what is available by using one of the methods presented in the chapter on converting. A liquid medication is involved; Q must be included because the amount varies and is not always per 1 mL. Example: Dopamine is infusing. The available dosage on the label for liquid medications may indicate the quantity of medication per 1 milliliter or per multiple milliliters of solution, such as 80 mg per 2 mL, 125 mg per 5 mL. Use formulas to validate the dosage you think is reasonable, not the reverse. The metric system is the principal system used in measurement for medications. 74 thoughts on “ Dosage calculations the easy way! This is because when such items are asked in examinations, an examinee is expected to calculate and compute drug dosages for their patients. Available: gr ½ per mL (Express the answer to the nearest tenth. 1. Skills are then practiced in the nursing lab. After reviewing this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Pediatric Dose Calculator Converts an adult dosage into a pediatric using BSA. x = The unknown, the dosage you are looking for, the dosage you are going to administer, how many milliliters, tablets, etc. What is desired is in the same system and unit of measure as what you have on hand. x��]m�㶑��U��)%�v8�+ ���}��w��k�/q��� ��HS�8K���F7������p�auyȾ��������ޝ_l?����O��V�7���f�����ū�ً��Oοa/�Bf�>aY����y�eV��J�?�����"��o�����'��v��٫�~u�Ζ��O��/�,����ӏ��X�K���w�x�Z��-|����[*���}�e�-��2��}j�������?��Gv��O���X�����RT���Jy/����n�}����,Ӌ�\܃�T�5z�6K���)[m�Wش�`Cנ�U]w?����^�ry��Q8�>~}�UL-gE�U(շH�j���ɖf�����%Ӌ�����[,��rO����dgЋ��..ߡu�+s.�� Whenever the desired amount and the dosage on hand are in different units or systems of measure, follow these steps: You will learn, for example, that the maximum number of tablets or capsules for a single dosage is usually three. Nursing Calculations & IV Therapy For Dummies Cheat Sheet; Cheat Sheet. Drug Dosage Calculation Test- (Practice Mode) 10 Questions | By Rnpedia | Last updated: Oct 6, 2020 | Total Attempts: 18989 . To calculate the number of tablets, use the following formula: Strength required / Stock strength = Number of tablet(s) required. When you are solving problems for medications in solution, the amount for Q varies and must always be included. 4. O.R. 4. Errors can be made if you totally rely on a formula to determine a dosage rather than asking yourself whether the answer is reasonable. What is desired and what is available must be in the, Dosage Calculation Using the Dimensional Analysis Method, Dosage Calculation Using the Ratio and Proportion Method. you will give. Related Think about what is a reasonable amount to administer, and calculate the dosage using the formula. 2. x = The unknown, the dosage you are looking for, the dosage you are going to administer, how many milliliters, tablets, etc. FORMULA FOR CALCULATING DOSAGES DH×Q=x Order: gr 1/6 subcutaneous of a medication. Convert gr ½ to mg. Order: 0.375 mg p.o. Whenever the desired amount and the dosage on hand are in different units or systems of measure, follow these steps: 2. What is desired and what is available must be in the same units and system of measure. Anything exceeding that should be a red flag to you, even if the answer is obtained from the use of a formula. When converting before calculating a dosage, convert apothecary and household measurements to their metric equivalents when possible. Settings. The West nomogram, commonly used to calculate BSA, is a graph with several scales arranged so that when two values are known, the third can be plotted by drawing a line with a straight edge. Q = The quantity or the unit of measure that contains the dosage that is available, in other words, the number of tablets, capsules, milliliters, etc. Play as . Medical Dosage Calculations For Dummies Cheat Sheet; Cheat Sheet. It is expected that these computations are accurate. Always estimate before applying a formula. Si US. The global unit selector only affects unanswered questions. 1. I certainly wish I could have had this to discover back when I was in nursing school (but we barely knew what computers were, haha). For the dosage, this refers to the prescribed amount of the drug you plan to take in mg per kg of body weight. This drug calculations review contains questions that covers a wide variety of dosage calculations problems you will encounter on exams and on the job. The available dosage on the label for liquid medications may indicate the quantity of medication per 1 milliliter or per multiple milliliters of solution, such as 80 mg per 2 mL, 125 mg per 5 mL. When the dosage desired and the dosage on hand are in different systems, convert them to the same system before using the formula, using one of the methods learned for conversion. For consistency and to avoid chances of error when Q is not 1, always include Q even with tablet and capsule problems. Objectives DH×Q=x Memorize the formula, or verify the formula from a resource. Included topics are dosage calculation, metric conversions, unit conversions, parenteral medications, and fluid input and output. Omitting Q here could result in an error. Multiply across the bottom line. o Test-takers may use a basic calculator that does not store data. 2. Label all terms of the formula, including “x,” as a safeguard to prevent errors in calculation. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Identify the information from a calculation problem to place into the formula given, 2. Formulas should be used as tools for validating the dosage you THINK should be given. It is imporant to learn and memorize the following formula: Let’s review a few standard conversions related to the metric system. Rule for Different Units or Systems of Measure. The child’s weight is marked on the right scale, the height on the left scale. 6. 1. This chapter shows how to use a formula for dosage calculation, which requires substituting information from the problem into the formula. Label all answers—tabs, caps, mL, etc. It can also recalculate the dosage expressed in mg/kg into doses of liquid medication. One way to tackle these types of questions is to set up a simple equation where X is the variable you are trying to find. A tablet or liquid may contain a certain amount of active ingredient, and the prescription might be a multiple or a fraction of that amount. Created by. Now we will look at sample problems illustrating the use of the formula. Therefore gr ½ = 30 mg. Now that you have everything in the same system and units of measure, use the formula presented to calculate the dosage to be administered. Most health care professionals become comfortable with one method and use that method exclusively. Choose the identified equivalent. The dosage 0.375 mg is desired; the dosage strength available is 0.25 mg per tablet. Always estimate before applying a formula. What an excellent resource you have created for nursing students! endobj This carboplatin dosing calculator uses the Calvert method to calculate the total carboplatin dose needed to achieve a given AUC (area under the free carboplatin plasma concentration versus time curve) while taking into account renal function. <> H = The dosage strength available, what is on hand, or the weight of the medication on the label, including the unit of measurement. Q = The quantity or the unit of measure that contains the dosage that is available, in other words, the number of tablets, capsules, milliliters, etc. Dosage and Calculations Practice Tests are some of the most commonly-searched practice exams for both student nurses and nurses wanting to take licensure and certification exams.. Formula Setup When the dosage desired and the dosage on hand are in different systems, convert them to the same system before using the formula, using one of the methods learned for conversion. Box 15-1 Steps for Using the Formula Calculate the number of tablets or capsules to administer, 4. Please note that dose is provided in mg not mg/m 2. (Because 30 mg is a larger dosage than 15 mg, it will take more than 1 tab to administer the desired dosage.). Share on Pinterest . No conversion is necessary. Calculate the number of tablets or capsules to administer 4. D = The dosage desired, or what the prescriber has ordered, including the units of measurement. The metric system is the principal system used in measurement for medications. 1. Identify the information from a calculation problem to place into the formula given Order: gr 1/6 subcutaneous of a medication. 4. 2. (D) 30 mg(H) 15 mg × (Q) 1 tab=x tabx=3015 × 1x=3015x=2 tabs, Therefore x = 2 tabs. . The dosage calculator finds what dose of a medication is appropriate for your weight. Place the information from the problem into the formula in the correct position, with all terms in the formula labeled correctly, including “x.”. It is important to note that the unknown “x” and “Q” will always be stated in the same unit of measure. Are you looking towards or preparing for becoming a medical assistant or nurse? It is important to note that the unknown “. H = The dosage strength available, what is on hand, or the weight of the medication on the label, including the unit of measurement. (Because 0.375 mg is larger than 0.25 mg, you will need more than 1 tab to administer 0.375 mg.) Note: Although 1.5 tabs is the same as 1½ tabs, for administration purposes, it would be best to state it as 1½ tabs. Sequential Easy First Hard First. Pediatric Dosage Calculations - Displaying top 8 worksheets found for this concept.. This chapter shows how to use a formula for dosage calculation, which requires substituting information from the problem into the formula. Omitting Q here could result in an error. Errors can be made if you totally rely on a formula to determine a dosage rather than asking yourself whether the answer is reasonable. • The dosage calculation competency test is given as a proctored assessment in the college's Testing Center, located in the Library in Martin Hall. Dosage calculations based on body weight are required when the dosage ordered and administered is dependent on the weight of the patient. Place the information from the problem into the formula in the correct position, with all terms in the formula labeled correctly, including “, Make sure that all measures are in the same units and system of measure; if not, a conversion must be done. Make sure that all measures are in the same units and system of measure; if not, a conversion must be done before calculating the dosage. CHAPTER 15 Now that we have reviewed the terms in the formula, let’s review the steps for using the formula (Box 15-1) before beginning to calculate dosages using the formula. It's critical to know how to calculate the doses properly; improper doses cannot only not heal the patient, but could cause major complications and … Know the patient's weight in kg if your calculation is weight based. No conversion is necessary. Or another way this drug dosage formula can be expressed is: What you want / What you’ve got = Number of tablet(s) required. Do not rely solely on formulas when calculating dosages to be administered. 1.Patient Weight? When you are solving problems that involve solid forms of medication (tabs, caps), Q is always 1 and can be eliminated from the equation. O 2 Remaining in E-Cylinder Calculates how much O 2 is left according to flow rate. For example, many pediatric drugs are ordered and given per weight (usually in kg). Drug Absorption (Pka) Determines how well a medication will be absorbed into the body. Abbreviations rule the medical world. Available: gr ½ per mL (Express the answer to the nearest tenth.) (D) 0.375 mg(H) 0.25 mg × (Q) 1 tab=x tabx=0.3750.25 × 1x=0.3750.25x=1.5=1½ tabs. Some liquid medications may also express the quantity in amounts less than a milliliter, such as 2 mg per 0.5 mL. (D) 0.375 mg(H) 0.25 mg × (Q) 1 tab=x tabx=0.3750.25 × 1x=0.3750.25x=1.5=1½ tabs Available: Tablets labeled 0.25 mg (Because 30 mg is a larger dosage than 15 mg, it will take more than 1 tab to administer the desired dosage.) Do not rely solely on formulas when calculating dosages to be administered. Pediatric Dosage Calculations is a sample topic from the Davis's Drug Guide. Convert what is ordered to the same units or system of measure as what is available by using one of the methods presented in the chapter on converting. Let’s examine the terms in the formula before using it. 2. (D) 30 mg(H) 15 mg × (Q) 1 tab=x tabx=3015 × 1x=3015x=2 tabs This is a dosage calculations course to prepare students to calculate dosages and administer medications safely with the various routes throughout the body. Dosage Calculations This unit looks at drug calculations. The nurse should use the formula consistently and in its entirety to avoid calculation errors. endobj Feb 11, 2017 | Posted by admin in PHARMACY | Comments Off on Dosage Calculation Using the Formula Method Students may NOT use the calculator function on their mobile phones. Example 2: (Because 0.375 mg is larger than 0.25 mg, you will need more than 1 tab to administer 0.375 mg.) Note: Although 1.5 tabs is the same as 1½ tabs, for administration purposes, it would be best to state it as 1½ tabs. Notice that the label on x is always the same as Q. Therefore change gr to mg; this will also eliminate the fraction and decrease the chance of error in calculation. Examples: mg, g, etc. This carboplatin calculator (carboplatin dose calculator) estimates your total carboplatin dose (in mg) using the Calvert formula).The calculations are based on a person's estimated creatinine clearance level (found using the Cockcroft - Gault equation), and the targeted carboplatin AUC value.. We try our best to make our Omni Calculators as precise and reliable as possible. 1. The desired (D) is 0.375 mg. You have on hand (H) 0.25 mg per (Q) 1 tablet. Medication label: 1 tablet = 250 mg. How many tablets should be administered daily? 3. Is this doctor's order within the desired range? Use the formula Calculating drug dosages is a very important skill for those in health care occupations. Remember that it is usual to convert what is desired to what is available. Convert gr ½ to mg. Start. Anything exceeding that should be a red flag to you, even if the answer is obtained from the use of a formula. The equivalent to use is 60 mg = gr 1. Think before you calculate. that contains the available dosage. STEPS FOR USE OF THE FORMULA Notice that the label on x is always the same as Q. Feedback. By Richard Snyder, Barry Schoenborn . 1. DH × Q=x Created by. 2 0 obj When you are solving problems for medications in solution, the amount for Q varies and must always be included. 3. Remember that you’re trying to find out the appropriate dose to take so it’s not a good idea to use an inaccurate value. Because the amount for “Q” can vary with liquid medications and is not always 1, omission of the amount for “Q” can render an error in dosage calculation. BSA Calculator Calculates BSA according to height and weight. The pharmacy technician must have a full work- ing knowledge of how to perform these calculations. The equivalent to use is 60 mg = gr 1. Tips for Clinical Practice of a medication. How to Do Drug Dosage Calculations. CHAPTER 15 Dosage Calculation Using the Formula Method Objectives After reviewing this chapter, you should be able to: 1. It is imporant to learn and memorize the following formula: Let’s examine the terms in the formula before using it. CAUTION Solution: Because the amount for “Q” can vary with liquid medications and is not always 1, omission of the amount for “Q” can render an error in dosage calculation. Solution: (D) gr 16(H) gr 12 × (Q) 1 mL=x mL Examples: mg, g, etc. Make sure that all measures are in the same units and system of measure; if not, a conversion must be done before calculating the dosage. This article will now look at some commonly used drug calculations and the way that mistakes can happen. The label on x is tablet. During the Quiz End of Quiz. 2.Dosage? Order: 7,000 units IM of a medication. A liquid medication is involved; Q must be included because the amount varies and is not always per 1 mL. Calculate medication dosages using the formula DH×Q=x, 3. The most common system we will use is the metric system. Label all answers—tabs, caps, mL, etc. Ratio-Proportion 3. Avoid Dosage Calculation Errors to calculate the dosage to administer. 3.Liquid Formulation - Medication amount (optional): 4.Liquid Formulation - Per volume (optional): 5.Preferred Units for Final Dosage? Memorize the formula, or verify the formula from a resource. you will give. Before I dive into each specific step, I just want to remind you to check out our Med Master course, which is the perfect compliment to this post about med math. Think logically, and consider what a reasonable amount to administer would be. Formula: Weight in Kg * Dosage Per Kg = Y (Required Dosage) Example: A doctor orders 200 mg of Rocephin to be taken by a 15.4 lb infant every 8 hours. Think about what is a reasonable amount to administer, and calculate the dosage using the formula. This quiz on weight-based dosage and calculations will test your ability to solve dosage and calculation problems of drugs that are based on a patient's weight. Because the amount for “Q” can vary with liquid medications and is not always 1, Label all terms of the formula, including “. Therefore x = 1.5 tabs, or 1½ tabs. Rule for Different Units or Systems of Measure 3. Use formulas to validate the dosage you think is reasonable, not the reverse. What is desired is in the same system and unit of measure as what you have on hand. Medical Dosage Calculations For Dummies Cheat Sheet . 3. Let’s calculate what would be a safe dose for her for both of these medications. Adjust medication dose based on patient weight. Some drug calculations may involve working out the volume of solution needed to give the required dose of a drug. Think before you calculate. Solution: ), Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window), on Dosage Calculation Using the Formula Method, Identify the information from a calculation problem to place into the formula given, Calculate medication dosages using the formula, Calculate the number of tablets or capsules to administer, Calculate the volume to administer for medications in solution. What is desired and what is available must be in the same units and system of measure. 3. You may also needIntravenous CalculationsCalculation of Oral MedicationsDecimalsRatio and ProportionDosage Calculation Using the Dimensional Analysis MethodDosage Calculation Using the Ratio and Proportion MethodReading Medication LabelsMedication Administration The available dosage on the label for liquid medications may indicate the quantity of medication per 1 milliliter or per multiple milliliters of solution, such as 80 mg per 2 mL, 125 mg per 5 mL. Multiple across the top line. bottle (drug concentration or number of mL of fluid). Here is an example of how to calculate oral medication dosage using ratio and proportion: Doctor's order: 125 mg of medication once a day. It is important to note that the unknown “x” and “Q” will always be stated in the same unit of measure. The desired (D) is 0.375 mg. You have on hand (H) 0.25 mg per (Q) 1 tablet. Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes The formula presented in this chapter can be used when calculating dosages in the same system of measurement. Read on to learn what the drug dosage calculation formula is and how to use it. DosageHelp.com: Helping Nursing Students Prepare for Medication Exams By Explaining Dosage Calculations: This website provides a dosage calculations tutorial, complete with explanations and examples, to help nursing students prepare for a medication exam. Therefore change gr to mg; this will also eliminate the fraction and decrease the chance of error in calculation. Follow these four steps to easily calculate your patient's accurate drug dosage. Thinking first will allow you to detect errors and alert you to try again and question the results you obtained. Next Question. Examples: mg, g, etc. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window)Like this:Like Loading... They are vitally important to get right, yet so easy to get wrong. In this section are the practice problems and questions for drug dosage calculations. This chapter shows how to use a formula for dosage calculation, which requires substituting information from the problem into the formula. Order: gr ½ p.o. Example 3: No other items, such as paper, books, or electronic devices are permitted in the test room. … Tags: Calculate with Confidence Only gold members can continue reading. The dosage 0.375 mg is desired; the dosage strength available is 0.25 mg per tablet. Dosage calculations include calculating the number of doses, dispensing quantities, and ingredient quantities; these calculations are performed in the pharmacy on a daily basis. Some liquid medications may also express the quantity in amounts less than a milliliter, such as 2 mg per 0.5 mL. When converting before calculating a dosage, convert apothecary and household measurements to their metric equivalents when possible. The desired (D) is 0.375 mg. You have on hand (H) 0.25 mg per (Q) 1 tablet. The bottle states dopamine 80… Label all terms of the formula, including “x,” as a safeguard to prevent errors in calculation. Solution: Here are the most commonly used abbreviations when preparing drugs: And divide both of … The label on. Think logically, and consider what a reasonable amount to administer would be. Fluid Requirements Calculates IV rate according to the type of surgery. Example 1: The formula presented in this chapter can be used when calculating dosages in the same system of measurement. Determine in which units your drug is measured (units/hour, mg/hour, or mcg/kg/minute). Use critical thinking skills such as considering what the answer should be, reasoning, problem solving, and finding rational justification for your answer. You will learn, for example, that the maximum number of tablets or capsules for a single dosage is usually three. Dr. Rachel Silva DNP May 9, 2015 at 11:06 am. Calculate the volume to administer for medications in… stream This nursing test bank set includes 100+ questions broken down into four parts. Identify the information from a calculation problem to place into the formula given 2. West nomogram. Formulas should be used as tools for validating the dosage you THINK should be given. Errors can be made if you totally rely on a formula to determine a dosage rather than asking yourself whether the answer is reasonable. The nurse should use the formula consistently and in its entirety to avoid calculation errors. Here are 13 categories you will be tested on with this quiz: Registration: Cancellation/Refund. D = The dosage desired, or what the prescriber has ordered, including the units of measurement. Drug Dosage Calculation Formulas. Nursing Central is an award-winning, complete mobile solution for nurses and students. “Q” is labeled accordingly as tablet, capsule, milliliter, etc.

What Vegetables Did The Romans Eat, Crkt Ceo Canada, Salad Stop Singapore, Papa Roach - Better Than Life, Stability Theory Of Dynamical Systems, R Code For Mice Imputation, Activities That Require Wrist Flexion, Transition Words For First Body Paragraph,